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Vlieland Polderweg View NE towards PosthuysFrom the west, Vlieland is the second inhabited Dutch Wadden Island, located in the province of Friesland, until 1942 in the province of North Holland. The island more or less coincides with the eponymous municipality of Vlieland. To the southwest of Vlieland is the island of Texel and to the northeast is the island of Terschelling. Of the five inhabited Wadden Islands, Vlieland has the highest dune top: 45 meters high.
The municipality of Vlieland is only one village, called Oost-Vlieland, which has approximately 1070 inhabitants (2004). With 32 inhabitants per km², Vlieland is, after Schiermonnikoog, the least populated municipality of the Netherlands; by far the majority of residents live in the village center.